Are Youth Sports Dying?

Are Youth Sports Dying?

 

Youth Football CoachAs a Youth Football Coach, I have been fighting dwindling numbers for the past 5 years.  Upon seeing a recent Article from USA Football highlighting a CBS report concerning Doctors speaking out against how concussions are being portrayed in the media, I was motivated to do a little research myself concerning the Athletic Association (Louisville, KY) where I coach both Football and Basketball.  I was curious to see if our local decline in sports participation mirrored the national statistics (2008 – 2012) reported by the Sports and Fitness Injury Association/Physical Activity Council cited in the CBS report.

Sports and Fitness Injury Association/Physical Activity Council

Sport Participation
Football -5.4%
Basketball -8.3%
Soccer -7.1%
Baseball -7.2%

Unfortunately I was only able to gather data for 2011 – 2014, but I believe it tells an interesting story nonetheless:

Athletic Association (Louisville, KY)

Sport Participation
Football -18.43%
Basketball -9.74%
Soccer -1.64%
Baseball +3.73%

Note:  Though the Baseball numbers are up the total number of participants are typically only 1/4 of the other sports listed and many schools in the Association failed to field teams.  Overall participation of the 13 Sports that our Association offers fell 9.04% in the same time frame where the number of potential participants stayed flat.

Though the numbers don’t match they do confirm a downward trend.  As I studied the numbers, I questioned why this is happening and remembered a Youth Sports Study published by Michigan State University in late 2004.  In this report it named the following reasons for Youth athletes discontinuing participation:

  1. No longer interested.
  2. It was no longer fun.
  3. The Coach played favorites or was a poor teacher.
  4. Wanted to participate in other activities.

I suspect that if that study were updated today, fear of concussions would rank high on the list.  As a Youth Coach, I believe I can address the first 3 items with how I manage my practices and game days, as well as continuing to strive to be a better teacher of the sports I coach.  Wanting to participate in other activities on the other hand is a little tougher.  Today children have so many more options than in years past from sports that have gone from being seasonal like Basketball and Baseball to year around to video games.  One of the more disturbing statistics for me personally mentioned in the Sports and Fitness Injury Association/Physical Activity Council research is that youth involved in no physical activities over a 12 month period rose from 16% for 6 – 12 year-olds and 17% for 13 – 17 year-olds in 2007 to 20% and 19% respectively in 2012.  Though I feel confident that the recent concussion scare has had an impact on these figures it can’t be the only reason based on the fact that Sports and Fitness Injury Association/Physical Activity Council study also shows an increase in participation of 158% and 64% for Lacrosse and Hockey respectively.  According to statistics published by Head Case these sports rank near the top for risk of concussion.

So what does all of this tell me?  Though I don’t have all of the answers, I don’t think it is one single factor:

  • Kids are moving away from the more traditional sports of Football, Basketball, and Baseball to others like Lacrosse and Hockey.
  • Kids are specializing.
  • The concussion scare is both a real and sometimes convenient excuse for children choosing not to participate in sports at all.

As mentioned above, not participating in any sports is the most bothersome for me.  I feel the benefits of Youth Sports far outweigh any risks.  That is not to make light of the risks, but as good Youth Coaches we can mitigate the risks with education and improved teaching techniques.  Looking back I can’t imagine trying to navigate my professional career without the lessons of teamwork, accountability, and facing adversity that my involvement in Youth Sports taught me.  I’m worried that today’s youth will not have those same experiences and wonder how well prepared they will be when entering adulthood.

If you have any thoughts and are willing to share, please shoot me an email by using the form below.

Youth Football Drills – Defensive Ends

Youth Football Drills

(Defensive Ends)

 

In our previous Youth Football Drills blog post we turned our attention to the defensive side of the ball with the DB Read and React Drill.  In this post we are going to share a Defensive End Box drill we developed several years back to help teach our Defensive Ends how to properly box.  If you are not a fan of boxing your Defensive Ends and prefer the Spill and Kill technique, we highly recommend you take a look at Coach Wilkins’ X’s and O’s of “Spill and Kill” Contain clinic.

 

 

Youth Football Drills - Defense End Box Drill

Youth Football Drills – Defense End Box Drill Setup

Drill Setup

  • 8 Cones
  • 1 Ball
  • Setup up cones and players to represent a Double Tight, 2 Back Split Formation.
  • Setup up cones to designate the Sweep Alley/Spot on each side of the ball.

Drill Execution

  1. Defensive End turns their back.
    • Coach tells the blocker and runner which hole to run to (Off-Tackle or Sweep) and snap count.  Note:  Run away from the Defensive End from time to time to make sure that they are pursuing through the backfield properly.
  2. On the snap count the blocker and runner run to the designated hole with the Coach handing or pitching the ball to the runner.
    • The runner must stay between the cones (Off-Tackle or Sweep).
  3. The Defensive End gets to the Sweep Spot, meeting the lead blocker, shedding the block, and tackling the runner.
    • They need to fight to force the runner deeper than the “Sweep Alley” or squeeze him inside the Off-Tackle hole.
    • When shedding the block, they position themselves where their outside arm is kept free to make a tackle and their inside foot is splitting the feet of the blocker.
  4. After cycling through several reps, switch to the other side.

For additional drill ideas for your team, we encourage you to download the CLYFL Youth Football Drill Book, as well as visit our YouTube library of football drills.  Our library includes drills for Offense, Defense, and Special Teams.  We have even included some Flag Football drills.

 

Youth Football Drills – Defensive Backs

Youth Football Drills

(Defensive Backs)

 

In our previous Blog posts we shared a couple of youth football drills that we like to use with our Offensive Line and Running Backs and Receivers.  In this post we are going to turn our attention to the Defensive side of the ball with a drill we call DB Read and React.  The purpose of this drill is to teach the Defensive Backs how to read the play to determine whether to execute their run fit or to defend the pass.

Youth Football Drills - DB Read and React

Youth Football Drills – DB Read and React Setup

Drill Setup – Tight End

  • 6 Cones
  • 1 Ball
  • Use 4 cones as Offensive Guards and Tackles.
  • Designate 1 cone as a Defensive End and another as a Defensive Tackle.

Note:  The Drill is setup for a defense that uses boxing Defensive Ends and the Defensive Back is playing Off Man coverage with their run fit being inside the Defense End.  However it can be adapted to other Defensive Systems.

Drill Execution

  • With the Defensive Player’s head turned the Coach instructs the Tight End to either Down Block on the Defensive Tackle cone, Stalk Block the Defensive Player, or run a pass route.
  • On “Go”, the Tight End executes the Coach’s instruction:
    1. If Down Block, the Defensive Player executes his Run Fit between the Defensive End and Tackle.
    2. If Stalk Blocked, the Defensive Player uses his hands to make a Swim Move keeping outside leverage and executes his Run Fit between the Defensive End and Tackle.
    3. If Pass Route, the Defensive Player covers the Tight End trying to break up the pass from the Coach.
  • After several reps, flip to the other side.
Youth Football Drills - DB Read and React

Youth Football Drills – DB Read and React Setup

Drill Setup – Split End

  • Designate 1 cone as a Defensive End and 1 cone as a Defensive Tackle.
  • Offensive Player lines up as a Split End.
  • Defensive Player aligns on the Split End per their alignment rules.

 

Drill Execution

  • With the Defensive Player’s head turned the Coach instructs the Split End to either Stalk Block the Defensive Player or run a pass route.
  • On “Go”, the Split End executes the Coach’s instruction:
    1. If Stalk Blocked, the Defensive Player uses his hands to make a Swim Move keeping outside leverage and executes his Run Fit between the Defensive End and Tackle.
    2. If Pass Route, the Defensive Player covers the Split End trying to break up the pass from the Coach.
  • After several reps, flip to the other side.

If you are looking for additional Defensive Back drills for your youth football team, we highly recommend, that you take a look at Coach Mahoney’s  Less is More Approach to Defense and Training up your Cornerbacks clinic.

For additional drill ideas for your team, we encourage you to download the CLYFL Youth Football Drill Book, as well as visit our YouTube library of football drills.  Our library includes drills for Offense, Defense, and Special Teams.  We have even included some Flag Football drills.

Youth Football Drills – Offensive Line

Youth Football Drills

(Offensive Line)

 

In our last blog post we shared a drill we call Slow Stalk Block that we are planning to use this coming season to help teach our Running Backs and Receivers how to properly execute a Stalk Block.  In this post we are going to share an Offensive Line drill we like to use for our Power Plays called Block the Backer.  The purpose of this drill is to make sure that our Pullers are finding Linebackers and making contact.

Youth Football Drills - Blocking the Backer

Youth Football Drills – Blocking the Backer Setup

Drill Setup

  • 6 Cones
  • 1 Stand-up Blocking Dummy.
  • Line 4 cones slightly angled downfield with a lineman in front of each. Place two cones 3 yards deep in front of center representing a Linebacker. The Linebacker stands in between the cones.
  • 1 Line. Rotate LB to Drill Line. Drill Line to Center. O-Line shifts one position to the right with PT becoming the LB.

Note: This drill is setup for an unbalanced line with the playside Guard pulling.  It can easily be adapted to a balanced line with the backside Guard pulling.

 

 

Youth Football Drills - Block the Backer

Youth Football Drills – Block the Backer Execution

Drill Execution

  • At the snap of the ball the Puller (G) must pull down the line.
  • The linebacker must try and tackle the dummy and the Puller (G) must get around the corner to block the Linebacker.

    Coaching Points for Puller

  • 6 inch first step with right foot at 2 o’clock.
  • Good rip with outside arm.
  • Low sprinter stance finish.
  • Spy the linebacker getting head to touchdown (outside) side.

If you are looking for additional Offensive Line Drills for your youth football team, we highly recommend, that you take a look at Coach O’Gorman’s How to be the Coach Your O-line Deserves clinic.

For additional drill ideas for your team, we encourage you to download the CLYFL Youth Football Drill Book, as well as visit our YouTube library of football drills.  Our library includes drills for Offense, Defense, and Special Teams.  We have even included some Flag Football drills.

Youth Football Drills – Running Backs

Youth Football Drills

(Running Backs and Receivers)

 

Inspired by Coach O’Gorman’s Offensive Line Drills we have come up with a Running Backs Drill called Slow Stalk Block.   The purpose of the drill is to not only re-enforce our Stalk Blocking technique, but also to teach the Running Back to read the block.  It’s a competitive drill that has both a winner and a loser.

Slow Stalk Block

Youth Football Drills – Slow Stalk Block Setup

Drill Setup

  • 4 Cones in a 5 by 10 yard rectangle (Note:  Depending on the age of your players the size of the rectangle made need to be adjusted.)
  • 1 Ball
  • 3 Lines (Runner, Blocker, and Defender)
  • The rotation of the drill is Defender to Runner, Runner to Blocker, and Blocker to Defender

 

 

 

 

Slow Stalk Block Drill

Youth Football Drills – Slow Stalk Block Drill

Drill Execution

  1. The Blocker and Defender line up 3 yards apart in the center of the rectangle with the Runner 2 yards behind Blocker.
  2. The Blocker approaches the Defender lowering his hips and keeping his head up while keeping the Defender from going where he wants to go.  The Defender is trying to tag the Runner.
  3. The Runner walks toward the end line reading the block and must stay within the rectangle.  (Note: Walks to the side of the Blocker’s rear end).
  4. If the Defender makes a definitive move in one direction, the Blocker should attempt to keep taking him that way.
  5. If the Runner is tagged, both the Runner and Blocker have to do 5 push-ups.  Otherwise the Defender must do 5 push-ups

If you are looking for additional youth football drills for your team, we encourage you to take a look at the CLYFL Youth Football Drill Book.  It consists of 85 drills covering many aspects of the game.  If you need more drill ideas, please take a look out our YouTube library of football drills.  Our library includes drills for Offense, Defense, and Special Teams.  We have even included some Flag Football drills.

Youth Football Coaching Tips

7 Tips for Coaching Younger Players in Youth Football

Coaching Little Guys in Youth Football

 

For the first time in my youth football coaching career I will be an assistant coach on a 3rd and 4th grade team.  I have always felt the coaches at the youngest levels of youth football are the most important because they are the first to introduce the game.  Because of this belief and since I am more experienced with coaching older players, I thought it would be a good idea for me to reach out to other coaches who are experienced at this level for advice.  As expected, I got back some great responses that I felt are worth sharing.

 

  1. Keep it Fun!  Many of the younger kids don’t initially understand the competitiveness of the game in the beginning.
  2. Give equal attention to all of your players.  While your better players will improve you will see the greatest improvements from your weaker players.
  3. Have a good practice plan and keep the pace fast and efficient.  Spend extra time on fundamentals and technique.
  4. Don’t assume players will understand all of the terms that you will use.   Make sure to explain everything no matter how small.
  5. Hide conditioning within games and competitive drills.
  6. Do everything you can to make every player feel good about football.
  7. Make sure to communicate to the parents early and often.  For many of parents this is their first exposure to youth football as well.

If you have any great tips that you are willing to share, please drop us a note using the form below:

Lesson #5 from a Youth Football Coach

Lessons from a Youth Football Coach

Lesson #5

By Coach Ronnie Atkinson

 

Practice2I’ve coached many youth sports over the past few years, but nothing near the magnitude of a tackle youth football team.  I learned a few valuable lessons in year one that other rookie coaches could surely benefit from.

Lesson #5: Experiment during practice and not in games.

Early in the season I wanted to experiment with our cadence to draw the defense off side and to keep them from timing our snap.  BIG MISTAKE!

Recommendation: Do not vary the snap count in youth football.  Doing so is almost as likely to cause a false start on your own offense as it is to draw the defense off side.

Our offense is a Double Wing offense that relies on chipping away at the defense 5 yards per play.  I thought that drawing the defense off side would basically be a free play each time.  That is all fine and dandy when it works, but when your own players commit a false start instead the resulting 5 yard penalty is a potential drive killer.  Teams that rely heavily on big plays can afford to lose 5 yards here and there.  We cannot.

I made the mistake of varying the snap count in a game without properly practicing it.  The results were as many false starts on our offense as off side penalties on the defense.  Once we changed our game plan and stayed with the same snap count, our false start penalties went away.

Recommendation:  Resist the temptation on Game Day to try and add any special adjustments, strategies, and plays you haven’t practiced.  While you may be successful on occasion, more often than not you won’t achieve the result that you are looking for.

If you choose to vary your snap count, practice this from day one.  Otherwise, use a single snap count.  If you must do something to keep the defense from timing your snap, try a No Play or Freeze Play to accomplish the same thing.  Running a No/Freeze Play near the beginning of the game should help create hesitation with the defense.  Below is an example of a team running a No/Freeze Play:

Coach Atkinson coaches a 4th Grade team in Edmond, Oklahoma.

Lesson #4 from a Youth Football Coach

Lessons from a Youth Football Coach

Lesson #4

By Coach Ronnie Atkinson

 

Youth Football PracticeI’ve coached many youth sports over the past few years, but nothing near the magnitude of a tackle youth football team.  I learned a few valuable lessons in year one that other rookie coaches could surely benefit from.

Lesson #4:  Youth Football Practice should be fun!

As mentioned in a previous post, my priorities for our youth football team are the following:

  1. Safety
  2. Learning
  3. Fun

Fun is the greatest motivator of all.  Few kids will give it their all if they are not having fun especially at the younger age levels where they have not yet quite grasped the benefits of hard work.  Based on this idea, hide conditioning in games/drills wherever possible.  The benefits of this are two-fold.  First, kids will try harder because they are having fun, and instead of wasting valuable practice time with sprints, etc… you can be teaching a skill.  A good example of this is Tug O’War.  We use Tug O’War to teach kids to stay low, while also building up their strength.  They love this!

In most of my individual competitive drills, I like to split the team into three groups.  If you win your match, you move down a group.  If you lose, you move up a group.  Eventually each group is full of comparable players which mean they have a better chance of winning and thus having fun and building up confidence.

As an example of what NOT to do… do not introduce contact with high speed drills such as the Oklahoma drill, Hamburger drill, or Bull in the Ring.  These drills tend to make the top two or three kids a little more confident, but the rest of the team tends to become timid.  Better ways to teach contact are drills like the Popsicle drill, Splatter Tackling drill, or Tee Time.  These drills allow kids to focus on technique and get over their fear of contact.  It also helps if you divide the kids into two or three groups based on size/skill level so that they continue to improve while building confidence.

At this age, coaching is about teaching fundamentals, instilling confidence, and creating enthusiasm for the game.  If these goals are accomplished the wins and losses will take care of themselves.

Coach Atkinson coaches a 4th Grade team in Edmond, Oklahoma.

Lesson #5: Experiment during practice and not in games.

Lesson #3 from a Youth Football Coach

Lessons from a Youth Football Coach

Lesson #3

By Coach Ronnie Atkinson

 

CoachesMeetingI’ve coached many youth sports over the past few years, but nothing near the magnitude of a tackle youth football team.  I learned a few valuable lessons in year one that other rookie coaches could surely benefit from.

Lesson #3:  Choose a coaching staff that is both supportive and trustworthy.

As mentioned in a previous post, my priorities for our youth football team are the following:

  1. Safety
  2. Learning
  3. Fun

When choosing a coaching staff, I want assistant coaches that share these priorities.  I also want coaches that provide different points of view and are not afraid to tell me when they feel I am making poor choices.  I also need them to go with my final decisions, even if they are not in agreement.

As I mentioned in a previous lesson, we like the Gap, Air, Mirror (GAM) defense for our age group.  In the GAM down linemen play the A and B gaps.  Defensive Ends line up “On Air”.  Secondary defenders “Mirror” receivers… or play Man-To-Man.  I had decided that there was really no way for an 8 year old Quarterback to receive a shotgun snap and get a good pass off in under 3 seconds while seeing heavy pressure from our defense.  I decided to heavily blitz our Inside Linebackers rather than have them cover the offense’s receivers.  This goes against the base GAM assignments.

During a practice where we were installing the defense, one of my assistant coaches argued with me for about half an hour during practice.  He said I was making a mistake by not having the Inside Linebackers cover the receivers.  I said, “Trust me; I know what I am doing”.  A couple of lessons to be learned here:

  1. Don’t waste valuable practice time arguing with other coaches.  Do this away from the kids and outside of practice.
  2. Be open to other coach’s suggestions instead of immediately dismissing them.

Our first game of the season was against a team with tackle experience.  Half of their team played for two years and the other half played one year.  They ran a spread offense and with passing typically being unsound at this age and our fields being compressed, I assumed that they would be highly ineffective.  I felt our heavy blitzes would get to the Quarterback before he could get any passes off.  I was wrong.  The first play of the game they attempted a jet sweep and we tackled them for a large loss.  “Ha!”  Our blitzing Inside Linebacker was the tackler.  This means I must be right!  Well, our Defensive End would have made the play if the Inside Linebacker hadn’t blitzed.  The very next play we were beaten for a long touchdown pass as the Quarterback did get a pass off before our pressure got to him.  I was stunned!  I was eating crow for sure.  I vowed to give more consideration to assistant coach’s suggestions and also to follow the GAM by the book, because had we done so we would have properly defended their receivers.  We played the 2nd half of the game by the book and shut down their offense completely.  We ended up finishing the game tied in our first tackle game ever against a very good and experienced team.  Had I considered the concern my Assistant Coach had expressed earlier, we may have even won.

We played the same opponent again later in the season.  I had been coaching our Inside Linebackers to jam the receivers at the line of scrimmage.  This would buy us enough time to get pressure on the Quarterback.  Two of my assistant coaches disagreed and said we should cover the receivers instead of jamming them.  They both played college football and said that jamming cannot be done against a skilled receiver that is aligned in the slot and is off the line of scrimmage.  My response was “right… in college, or even high school, but these are kids”.  One of the assistants was the same coach that told me I shouldn’t blitz our Inside Linebackers and leave receivers uncovered.  He was right about that, but I was sure he was wrong about this so I stuck to my guns.

Game time arrived and the first play of the game our opponent threw a long pass to a speedy receiver that landed right in his hands, but thankfully he dropped it.  I emphasized to the Inside Linebacker that he was to jam that receiver and not to try and cover him.  Next play was a jet sweep that our Defensive End stopped cold.  Play three was another deep pass to the same receiver that dropped the earlier pass.  Again he was wide open but this time he caught it for a touchdown.  When our defense came off the field I asked the Inside Linebacker why he didn’t jam him like we had practiced.  He said that his dad (one of the disagreeing Assistant Coaches) said not to… he was supposed to cover him.  When I approached his dad, before I could even say a word he started laying into me that the receiver is too fast for his son to cover and we needed someone else on him.  My response was “he shouldn’t have to cover him if he was jamming him instead.”  After a slightly heated exchange, we both approached his son and said to jam him the rest of the game.  Well, it worked.  That kid never caught another pass that game.  In fact, the next ball thrown to him was nowhere near him and was intercepted by our Safety.

Mission accomplished so I thought.  Next time they had the ball, they threw to another receiver that was being covered by my other Inside Linebacker that happened to be the son of the other disagreeing Assistant Coach.  He soon got beat for a touchdown.  I asked why he wasn’t jamming the receiver and his response was the same… his dad told him to cover instead.  I told him to jam or he would sit out the rest of the game.  He did as I instructed and we shut down their passing game completely for the remainder of the game, but we ultimately ended up losing the game.

After the game, I had a major discussion with my Assistant Coaches.  I explained that it was okay to disagree with me and that I made a mistake in the first game by not listening to their opinions, but that did not give them the right to undermine my decisions.  I further explained that if they were unable to respectfully disagree and support my decisions, they were welcome to take their kids to another team.

Coach Atkinson coaches a 4th Grade team in Edmond, Oklahoma.

Lesson #4: Youth Football practice should be fun!

Lesson #2 from a Youth Football Coach

Lessons from a Youth Football Coach

Lesson #2

By Coach Ronnie Atkinson

 

Youth Football SystemsI’ve coached many youth sports over the past few years, but nothing near the magnitude of a tackle youth football team.  I learned a few valuable lessons in year one that other rookie coaches could surely benefit from.

Lesson #2:  Choose the best Defensive and Offensive systems for your Team.

My priorities for our youth football team are the following:

  1. Safety
  2. Learning
  3. Fun

To accomplish #1, we would create a safe environment and coach sound fundamentals.  To accomplish #2, we would give as much exposure to as many kids as possible.  I would achieve this by choosing the best systems for our team.

I started with defense because “Defense wins Championships” and if our opponent cannot score on us, we can’t lose.  I needed a simple defense so I could focus my defensive teaching time on tackling fundamentals and so I could spend more time on offense.  After some research, I decided that the Gap, Air, Mirror (GAM) defense was a very simple install that encourages aggressive play.

As it turns out, it was a great defense for a first year tackle youth football team.  The GAM is great at defending the sweep.  At the younger levels, if you stop the sweep, you win (most of the time).  Only one team scored on us all season long.  They would not have scored on us at all if not for a few breakdowns that I will discuss in future lessons.

For offense, I needed to keep it simple and wanted to limit our playbook to 12 plays.  I wanted an offensive scheme that was run focused (because passing is not very effective at the younger ages) and I wanted to give as many players as possible an opportunity to carry the football.  Realizing that most teams rely on the sweep and as such, the better coached teams will be able to stop the sweep, I wanted an offense that did not rely on the sweep to be effective.  I researched extensively in this area and for my goals and the talent I had available, I chose the Double Wing offense.

Of our 19 players, about six of them were quality ball carriers.  Of those, I selected the one that stayed calm under pressure as our Quarterback.  He was also one of three kids on the team with any previous tackle youth football experience.  I used speed as the deciding factor for my starting Wingbacks and Fullback.  The Quarterback choice was great, but two of the three others were not as good.  You see, the Double Wing offense is about gaining 5 yards per carry by powering through the defense via the Super Power and/or the Wedge.  One Wingback and my Fullback had a tendency to hesitate and dance around in the backfield rather than follow their blockers.

Overall our offense was great as we led our league in scoring.  Using the Wedge, I was able to give every single weight eligible player on the team an opportunity to carry the ball into the end zone accomplishing goals #2 and #3 above.  The kids had a blast!

Next season I will choose my starting backfield based on their tendencies to NOT hesitate or dance around, but rather trust and follow their lead blockers.  I will also introduce drills like the Chaser Drill that will hopefully train runners to hit the hole more quickly.  I will also choose to master a smaller playbook before moving on.  I learned that 12 plays was too much to truly master at the very young age levels.

There are several youth friendly Offensive and Defensive Systems available.  I recommend these over a non-system offenses and defenses.  The more popular offenses are Double Wing, Single Wing, and Wing T.  The more popular defenses are the Wide Tackle 6, 6-3, 3-3 Stack, and the aforementioned GAM.  Choosing a particular offense or defense will not guarantee your youth football team victories, but they will give you an edge when all other variables are equal.

Coach Atkinson coaches a 4th Grade team in Edmond, Oklahoma.

Lesson #3: Choose a coaching staff that is both supportive and trustworthy.

1 3 4 5 6